We found that DISC1, by interacting with Girdin girders of actin filaments and Akt also known as protein kinase B , regulates actin polymerization. We opted for GABA as a subpallial neuronal differentiation marker, as results from the last few years have indicated that telencephalic GABAergic neurons are generated in the Dlx-expressing subpallium Brox et al. Tangential migration of cortical interneurons differs from radial migration in several respects reviewed in Nadarajah and Parnavelas, ; Marin and Rubenstein, Using time-lapse video microscopy to visualize the complex migration behavior of interneurons it was possible to analyze the dynamic of individual migrating cells on a two-dimensional substrate. The hemispheric wall is finally formed in its ventromedial portion, at mid-rostral levels, by the nucleus accumbens a medial continuation of the striatum at rostral levels , and the septum, which shows a layered arrangement of migrated cells from the ventricle Figure 1 a.

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In Comparative Neurology of the TelencephalonS. To re-name this area would serve to help the establishment of putative homologies with its counterparts in anurans jl20001a amniotes, facilitating the study of the evolutionary relationships in the amygdaloid complex.

Pre-adsorption of the primary antisera with synthetic Nkx2. Regulatory gene expression patterns reveal transverse and longitudinal subdivisions of the embryonic zebrafish forebrain.

In a previous study we demonstrated through in vitro experiments that DISC1 also controls the tangential migration of cortical interneurons originating from the medial ganglionic eminence MGE. Thus, the amygdala in anamniotes might be composed by the most conserved amygdaloid regions, while in amniotes the amygdala would be the sum of evolutionary old centromedial and basolateral regions and cortical new regions, which would be missing in the amphibian brain.


Prosomeric map of the lamprey forebrain based on calretinin immunocytochemistry, Nissl stain, and ancillary markers. For the present study, 18 juvenile and adult specimens of newts P.

DISC1 deficient cells perform less somal translocations in vitro.

Neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. Identification of putative nitric oxide producing neurons in the rat amygdala using NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry. You can login by using one of your existing accounts.

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The sections were analyzed with a Zeiss fluorescence microscope with appropriate filter combinations. Login Register Login using. Similar experiments with a dominant-negative form of DISC1 also lead to migration defects, although they have been less pronounced compared to DISC1 knockdown. The serum used in each case corresponded with the species in which the secondary antibody was raised. Although swellings arrow heads appeared several times, a soma translocation did not occur.

A graphic representation of the trajectories of these two cells is illustrated in Figure 3B. Distinct patterns of immunoreactivity were found in the telencephalon. Evolution of the amniote basal ganglia. Unlike cortical projection neurons, cortical interneurons originate in the ventral telencephalon and therefore have to migrate over much longer distances to reach their final destination in the developing cortex.

Ndel1 operates in a common pathway with LIS1 and cytoplasmic dynein to regulate cortical neuronal positioning. F-actin signals appeared in front of the nucleus and moved sidewise to the back during soma translocation Figure 4C and Supplementary Damera.

Within this framework of roughly defined telencephalic regions the results of our experimental study will be presented and analyzed in the camer sections.

However, we and others could not exclusively target the MGE with this technique, instead transfected cells were found scattered or in clusters throughout the basal telencephalon and camega the corticostriatal junction Bai et al. In addition, defining features of the ventral pallium in amniotes are its position deep to the lateral olfactory tract and dorsal to striatal territories Puelles et al.


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With this vector, EGFP labeling should occur only in those transfected cells in which Lhx6 expression is stimulated by the transcription factor Nkx2. This situation strikingly contrasted with the pattern observed in the region that would correspond with the ventral portion of the classical lateral h. DISC1 genetics, biology and psychiatric illness. Neurons expressing the transcription factor Nkx2. Thus, using a reporter construct for Lhx6 positive cells we could demonstrate that DISC1 is an essential component for the correct migration of cortical interneurons in the intact brain.

Therefore, for the present study, in which n comparison with different species is important, the use of the same antibody seemed the most convenient choice.

Contrast and brightness were adjusted using Adobe PhotoShop 7. It has been shown to regulate radial migration as well as dendritic arborization during neurodevelopment and corticogenesis. After rinsing the sections pf mounted on glass slides and coverslipped with Vectashield Vector, Burlingame, CA. After 3 days in uteroDISC1 deficient interneurons displayed prolonged leading processes and, compared to control, fewer neurons reached the cortex.